Sunday, June 30, 2013
Thursday, May 30, 2013
Saturday, September 15, 2012
Arch Linux + Xfce4.10 + VirtualBox. 字体用了ttf-mac-fonts和fontconfig-infinality两个包来配置。
Debian虽然据说安装要相对容易些，其实也很坑爹。在我试过的几台机器上（笔记本，办公室的Mac Pro，台式机），把ISO写到U盘上安装是会失败的，而且必须用文字界面的expert install才能正确安装运行。使用图形界面必然导致在安装过程中某处死机，使用非expert install必然导致安装完重新启动后不能正常运行——话说对很多普通用户朋友，您能跟他们说清楚把grub安装到/dev/sda，/dev/sda2和/dev/sda5的区别么？
1, 显卡：有一块GTX 560。用Debian时，由于开源驱动Nouveau的bug，在安装后重新启动就会死机。解决方法是安装完后不要立刻重启，而是先进入shell，在/etc/modprobe.d/下建一个文件，丢一句blacklist nouveau。然后用安全模式重启，直接wget一个（因为没有图形界面浏览器可用，顺便用lynx访问nVidia的网站只能得到404！）NV的官方非开源驱动程序安装了，就万事大吉。Arch下nouveau虽然仍然提示出错，但至少不会死机了——虽然我们还是得blacklist掉它然后安装非开源驱动。
2. 无线网卡：我用的是一块华硕USB-N13（信号质量超好，推荐），用的是Realtek 8192cu芯片组。首先，目前Linux基本上还不能驱动任何2.4/5GHz双频的无线网卡，只能用2.4GHz的让它和公寓楼中无数微波炉干涉去。其次，NDISWrapper且不说配置的麻烦，照着文档配置好了也有颇大概率不能用。最后，对rtl8192cu这个芯片来说，虽然realtek提供了驱动源代码和firmware给Linux社区，但内核（3.5.3-2）里的那个驱动是不能工作的。解决办法是用另一台电脑下载一个别的软件包到U盘上，然后编译安装，安装好后仍需要在/etc/modprobe.d/里配置一些电源管理的参数，blacklist掉内核自带的驱动。然后DHCP仍然不能工作——解决方法是只好用静态IP咯。系统自带的Network daemon完全没用，把它从配置文件里去掉，自己写个脚本丢到/etc/rc.local里，于是每次启动终于能自动联网了。
3. 磁盘阵列：用的是Intel芯片组的软磁盘阵列（imsm）。启动时无需手动加载任何mdadm服务，udev就会自动侦测到磁盘阵列并配置好它——但是是只读，而且读取速度很慢。更坑爹的是，用google到的各种mdadm和mdmon命令行都没法把它掰回来。试图在modprobe.d里blacklist raid456以禁止udev自动加载mdadm，结果不但不能正确配置阵列，更在重启两次后，BIOS就开始提示阵列需要重新sync，一sync就是几个小时。于是我也不敢再折腾了，只读就只读吧，反正也是个在Winodoze下搭的NTFS阵列……
usermod -a -G disk username
（当然你也可以chmod 666 /dev/sdb*，但这样太危险了。）
dd if=/dev/sdb of=sdb.mbr bs=512 count=1
vboxmanage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename sdb2.vmdk -rawdisk /dev/sdb -partitions 2 -relative -mbr sdb.mbr
2. 另一个重要的初心者向发行版Linux Mint也抛弃了gnome，fork出一个cinnamon。
3. 由于gnome不能在一张CD上装下，所以Debian 7将要抛弃gnome，用xfce作为默认桌面环境。——别看现在没人用CD了，我实践中，用CD安装Linux，比用U盘安装Linux故障率小得多。
4. gnome 3.6要集成坑爹的ibus作为输入法框架，引发了中文社区和gnome核心开发团队的激烈 争吵。作为fcitx（好像现在是位p大的同学在维护）的支持者，总结一下gnome团队的态度就是：我们（红帽子公司的白皮）吃了一口宫保鸡丁觉得还不错，所以决定了，你们中国人只吃宫保鸡丁就行了。什么？你想要火锅？那是什么，可以吃么？
趣味信息一则：看了Linus Torvalds喷各种他不爽的事物，从gnome到bsd，里面也有喷到Emacs。如果让Linus和Richard Stallman两大喷神对喷，一定很精彩。
最后吐槽一下，Linux社区真需要考虑软件起名的严肃性。例如有个CPU调度器叫做Brain F**k Scheduler，会这么粗鲁地起名大概是缘于作者和Torvalds团队的恩怨。又如，有个mount远程磁盘的工具起名叫做Gigolo（牛郎/小白脸/面首），原因是牛郎这个职业和“mount”这个动词的关系。试想一个7岁小萝莉（没错，我想到了Persona 4里的ななこ）学习使用Linux，问道，“藕泥酱，为什么mount远程目录的软件叫做gigolo呢？”您要怎么回答？
Sunday, September 02, 2012
暑假中一事无成，不过倒是有闲情，用PS2模拟器上打穿了2001年的RPG大作Final Fantasy X——权当学日语了。于是你买了台i7-2600 + gtx-560就是用来干这个的么？
Karl der Große——本朝太祖：第一次基督教在一个异族/异文化重要国家，建立起了有日耳曼特色的基督教政权
Monday, March 26, 2012
刚才在SNS上得知消息，在本blog上提到 过 多 次的高中语文老师去世了。
Sunday, March 04, 2012
窃以为，与其说虎妈模式是中国式教育（反正我没听说过啥中国父母这样教育儿女的著名事例，她大概也没真在中国文化中浸染过），倒不如注意到，她和她老公约定，女儿们是要“raised Jewish”的。于是俺还就真轻松地找到了犹太人中虎妈狼爸的先例。呶，这例子就是不久前在这儿提过的，人类历史上最后一位charismatic型哲♂学家，维特根斯坦。维家好比是贾王史薛合起来放在欧洲金陵维也纳，诗礼簪缨之族，富可敌国之家，对儿女的成就要求高得难以想象。于是维氏兄弟们都鸭梨山大，有三位自杀的，连二十世纪学术界头号高帅富路德维希都直到晚年，才（大概觉得自己的成就达到了家长要求）克服了自杀的念头。和这么重量级的实例比起来，虎妈，狼爸，区区上个常春藤或p大什么的，真是弱爆了有木有啊。中国式教育，窃以为，在给孩子时间紧任务重鸭梨大上并不比犹太、东欧、韩国人等更出众，倒是异常执着于让孩子在“tried and true”的路径上，竞争中，高人一头，光宗耀祖。
于是再来举个反例。在iTunes Podcast排行榜上，有一档叫做Car Talk的脱口秀时常出现在综合前十（对希望了解红脖子汽车文化的同学热烈推荐此节目）。主持人是意呆利裔两兄弟，现年分别七十和五十多岁。这两兄弟是麻州剑桥人，本科都在麻州技工学院读书。毕业了自然从事的都是体面的工作，以虎妈狼爸的标准大概也够出书炒作一番了。但哥哥工作了十多年后辞了职回到老家，不工作，在哈佛广场上闲晃。母亲央求毕业不久也厌烦工作的弟弟去“拯救”他。俩兄弟便在MIT旁边开了一家——修车铺，作为生计。后来他们被邀请去广播节目做汽车专家嘉宾，再后来发展成了Car Talk这个独立的节目，大受欢迎，每周被许多电台转播，得了广播界的大奖皮博迪奖。甚至，他们在节目里抱怨了一番为什么请科菲·安南而不请他们之后，99年被拉去做了母校的毕业演讲。还有在皮克斯的《汽车总动员》中客串出场，等等……当然给人印象最深刻的是，这两兄弟听了打进电话的观众模仿一番汽车发出的奇怪响声，通常就能有板有眼地判断出故障出在了哪里。还有，节目结束的时候，主持人总会说，"It's happened again. You've squandered a perfect hour listening to Car Talk."——每次听到这里我就想吐槽：y'know, you've squandered a perfect life doing all this sh*t, man.
Tuesday, January 24, 2012
但翻译就太难了，比如说文中有这么一句，"Nicaragua.... this tiny place where everybody f**ked everyone, in all sorts of different ways some of which were sexual. " 要贴切地翻译这里f**k的一语双关，太考验中文说脏话的水平了。
I was not always as you see me now. At one point, I was considerably younger. I'd like you to help me now to become a little younger in your eyes. Twenty-three years, that may be really really long time for some of you but try. Imagine, imagine the years falling away from me, the hair grows on my head, my body becomes lean and tough, kind of like Brad Pitt.
So I ask you to come back with me in 1986. In 1986, that's an impossibly distant time, I was sitting in London and writing a novel, and I have to tell you that it was not going well. I wrote hundreds of pages, and I did not like them. I was, as they say, 'blocked', and didn't know what to do about it. So I thought, 'What do you do if you are blocked when you are writing a novel?' I thought, 'I know, you go to a revolution.'
Now as it happened, I'd been invited to a revolution. People are not always offered invitations of revolutions, but in my case, it was in fact so, and the reason for that in fact was a PEN (1) festival. I have come to New York for a PEN festival in the spring of 1986 under the presidency of Normal Mailer. And at, of all places, the Temple of Dendur at the Metropolitan Museum of New York, I met the woman who invited me to the revolution. It was a woman called Rosario Murillo, from Nicaragua, who was, in her own word, the companera (2) of Daniel Ortega, then the president of Nigaragua and the leader, of course, of the Frente Sandinista (3), which had recently taken power in that country.
(1) PEN: 国际笔会
(2) Companera: 西班牙语“伴侣”
(3) Frente Sandinista: 桑地诺民族解放阵线
She was surrounded, I remember vividly, by a group of the most beautiful bodyguards I'd ever seen. They were male, they were oiled, they had very fancy rubber-wrought shades, and... I don't even like guys, but they were very, very desirable, unlike Rosario Murillo, who was not. But she said, 'Please come, and experience our revolution for yourself.' But at the time I said, 'No, I can't do that because I have a book to write.' I went home and discovered I couldn't write the book, so I called her up and said, 'You know that revolution you were offering me? Could I have second thoughts and come?' Because I thought, 'If you write a book and it's not going well, why don't you go and look at the lives of people who are really having a bad time? And you can immediately feel superior, and come home and finish your work.'
So for these literary reasons, I went to Nicaragua. What I didn't realize was that the person who had invited me was the most hated woman in Nicaragua, the companera of Daniel Ortega, universally loathed. And it was kind of a preemptive loathing, because people didn't realize that the thing for which she really ought to have been loathed she hadn't yet done. Many years after this, her daughter, Zoilamerica, accused her boyfriend - Rosario Murillo's boyfriend, Daniel Ortega, of having raped her. And Rosario Murillo's response was to side with Daniel Ortega against her daughter. The reasons, motives for this was entirely political because ever since then, she has had Daniel Ortega's genitalia very firmly in her grasp, and he has to do everything she says. So that's the real reason to hate her, but that, you see, it shows that the people of Nicaragua have a very elastic sense of time - they can hate people things they're going to do in the future.
Anyway, so there I was, with the most hated woman in Nicaragua. And people looked at me oddly where I said she had invited me, and it did cause some problems, but it had some advantages. And one of the advantages was that I got incredible access. I could go and have dinner with everybody who was running the country and they will talk very, very freely and the trouble is, I knew if I put a tape recorder on the table, they would not talk so freely. So I had to invent diarrhea, and it's gotta have diary with a sort of upset attached. And I would have to at these dinners upend myself to go to the bathroom and scribble like crazy so I could write down everything everybody had said without seeming to spoil the evening.
And I discovered many things. I discovered that the three different groups that formed the Frente Sandinista deeply detested each other. There was the Ortega group which was the guerrillas who had come down from the hills who were savage and barbaric and uneducated but they had all the guns, and then there was the kind of Maoist - Ho Chi-Minh really - group which believed in raising the consciousness of the peasants, and then there was the kind of a middle class group of writers and intellectuals and business men, and other useless people. And they all detested each other but what they also did was they all went to bed with each other, and they also went to bed with all the leaders of the opposition.
This was something I subsequently discovered but I finally wrote something about this when I was interviewed, here in the New York, for the Interview Magazine by Bianca Jagger from Nicaragua. And every time I mention somebody, whether from the left or the right, Bianca would say, 'Oh yes, I used to go out with him.' And I realized that she was the person who really ought to be writing about Nicaragua, because it is this tiny place where everybody f**ked everyone, in all sorts of different ways some of which were sexual.
So I learned all this, you see, and had a lot of very good food. Well, I did, but I don't want to underestimate what was happening there. The country was in the stage of genuine devastation. Because the United State, a large country to the north, had formed an opinion that Nicaragua, which contained a population considerably smaller than the population of the tri-state area, posed a serious threat of safety in the United States and therefore needed to be crushed. And some of the effects of the crushing were very striking. For instance, people in Nicaragua got up very early in the morning to do their shopping because the prices went up at lunch time, and if you didn't do your shopping then, the prices went up again at sort of five o'clock in the afternoon. So the inflation rate was like that. It was that the prices would rise twice a day. And also, as we discovered, if you had a tractor, if you were a farmer and your tractor needed to be taken to the garage, the cost of servicing a tractor was a cow. This of course, if you were a farmer, there were diminishing return involved in this because you'd end up with just the tractor and no cows, but you couldn't eat the tractor unless it was a Trabant (4), of course.
(4) Trabant: 东德汽车品牌
So it was genuinely terrible, especially as, on top of all the calamity of the war, there was the calamity of the earthquake which had destroyed so much of the center of Managua. So here there was a city center where there wasn't a center. You know, there would be these streets, big, esplanade-like streets but no buildings because they had all fallen in the earthquake and it gave the government problems. For instance, the ministry of the interior, they had to use the few buildings that had survived. So the ministry of the interior was in a supermarket, and you could actually see the supermarket signs still up there on the outside of the ministry of interior.
And the ministry of culture, where I went to meet the great poet Ernesto Cardenal who was the minister of culture. The ministry of culture was located in the home of the formal mistress of the former dictator, Somoza, in Hope Somoza's house. And actually Ernesto Cardenal's office was in Hope Somoza's bathroom. So we were sitting there in her bathroom and he talked about liberation, and how his presence in this bathroom indicated that the country had been liberated. He said this without irony - Ernesto Cardenal was not strong on irony. There was a point I remember seeing him in a literary festival where he claimed that Nicaragua had become the first country on Earth to nationalize poetry. Some soviet-hating Russian stood up and said, (此处他模仿了东欧腔的英语) 'Sekond naition.' Anyway, so Ernesto Cardenal, there he was, in Hope Somoza's bathroom, and he told me that it was his dream. It was almost already fully realized that everybody in Nicaragua should be a poet. He said, "Almost everybody is, but I'm going to complete the task." And to complete the task, he had set up poetry workshops in villages all across the country so that the campesinos (5), the villagers, could be taught how to write poetry, and he taught them that they should write from their hearts and not worry too much about things like form. They should speak about their lives in the most personal and emotional way, and, 'As examples,' he said, 'we are giving them, showing them the work of great American poets.' I said, 'Which ones?' He said, 'Marianne Moore and Walt Whitman'. And I thought, 'Those are two of the most complicated poets in the world.' So I said, 'If you are teaching them how to write simply and you are teaching them Marianne Moore and Walt Whitman, are those the right poets to be choosing?' And he said, 'No, no, you should not worry. We are teaching them the work of Walt Whitman and Marianne Moore in simplified form.' And these two were said entirely without irony, as well as his statement that there were no political prisoners in Cuba. So, you see, it was a complex thing in the world of the mind of Nicaragua.
(5) Campesinos: 西班牙语“农民”
And there I was, chitchatting with artists and intellectuals about this. And I thought, 'This is not what I should be doing. I should be going to the war. Take me to the war! I've come here to see the war. The Contra (6) must be somewhere. They are up there somewhere. I must go to find the war.' They didn't like that very much, because they were worried that I could get hurt and that would be bad publicity. And my translator said to me, 'You know, Bono's here', she said. 'And he hasn't gone to the war.' I said, 'O really, is that right?' And then she said a wonderful thing. She said, 'Please, who is Bono?' This was before the Unforgettable Fires (6) so I guess she could be excused.
(6) Contra: 反叛军
(7) The Unforgettable Fires: U2乐队专辑名。U2的Bono此时恰好也在访问尼加拉瓜
Anyway, they didn't want me to get hurt but eventually I yelled at them so much that they began to relent. So I read in the newspaper a terrible story about a road in the north of Nicaragua near the border where a land mine had blown up a busload of school children, and fifty-odd school children had been killed just the previous week. And so I thought, 'You know, I'm gonna be a war correspondent. I'm going to be a war correspondent if it kills me.' And actually, no, I didn't think that. I thought, 'as long as it doesn't kill me.' But I wanted to go to see this road, so I managed to persuade them to send me, so off I went.
And eventually I was in the back of a truck, being driven towards the war zone and actually, you know, it was getting really a little bit scary, at near the end of the war. And I found myself on the road. They said to me, 'this is the road where the landmine went off.' And I thought, 'Oh.' And I said to the to Sandinista soldiers next to me. I said, 'Is there a way to, you know, to tell if there are landmines in the road?' And he said, 'Yes.' 'Yes,' with relief, I said, 'What is the way?' He said, 'there is a very big bang.' So that wasn't at all what I wanted to hear. So as we went on, we suddenly found ourselves going into woods. The woods got darker, thicker. 'The woods were lovely, dark and deep.' (8) But actually I was more and more and more frightened as we got into them. And suddenly exactly what my greatest nightmare took place, which was that when we turned a corner, there was a tree across the road. And I thought, 'Shit!' You know, 'We are now dead people.' There was a Contra ambush, and we were sitting ducks and we've had it. And the soldiers on the truck thought so too, really, so they leapt off with their AK-47s and they did all the kind of things people do with AK-47s. They ran around like crazy and I sat on the truck and quaked, essentially, thinking, 'I've got a novel to finish, you know. Please, not now, I need to go home and write a final draft.' And, you know, the amazing thing was, that it was just that the tree had fallen across the road. There was no ambush. That was an accident.
So I'd got to leave. I came back and I took the first plane out, and went back to London in my study. And I thought, 'Hah. Home. Safe. Nothing bad will ever happen again.' And also, I knew exactly how to write the novel now. All the problems had disappeared, and I sat down and wrote the final draft of 撒旦诗篇. And I discovered that not only landmines could make a big bang, but sometimes books could make them, too. But the great benefit was, that I cured my writing block.